A building with windows and clouds above.
Climate Action Through Design


When you do build new, focus on low-impact and low‑carbon resources.
First United Bank, Fredericksburg, Texas
This bank building is constructed with mass timber Cross-Laminated Timber panels and glulam beams, which actually sequester carbon dioxide instead of emitting it.

Tackling climate action in the building industry starts with making conscious decisions about how the materials with which we build are manufactured and sourced. Today, the harvesting, manufacture, and transportation of the raw materials used in building construction are responsible for 11% of global emissions. This accounts for roughly a quarter of annual building sector emissions, and that number is growing.

The nonprofit advocacy group Architecture 2030 is unambiguous on the subject, saying “We cannot meet climate goals without also eliminating embodied carbon emissions by 2040.”


Materials vary in their impact. Cement used to make concrete accounts for nearly 10% of all emissions worldwide. Wood, however, has relatively low embodied energy — as much as five times less than steel.

To measure the carbon impact of various materials, we look at what’s known as a product’s global warming potential (GWP). The GWP is a standardized way to measure the greenhouse gas emissions associated with a product from material extraction through end-of-life disposal or recycling, otherwise known as embodied carbon. The higher the GWP intensity, the more important it may be to seek low-carbon variations and alternatives.

Global consumption of raw materials could double by 2060.
—Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Generally speaking, the longer that materials are used in buildings, the better. Furniture and interior finishes tend to be replaced every few years, while structural elements can last as long as the building itself. Even though structural elements are highly carbon-intensive, the repeated churn of interior materials over the life span of a building can add up to an equal or greater share of the whole-life carbon footprint.

Regardless of which type of project a client has, architects and designers have an opportunity to decrease embodied carbon levels throughout the built environment by the materials they choose to work with.

“We know that embodied carbon ends up being a large portion of the overall ‘life cycle’ carbon associated with a building, so as we buy construction materials, we seek out lower carbon intensity suppliers, often driving 10-20% reductions in embodied carbon at little or no impact on cost.”
—Sarah King, Director of Sustainability, Skanska USA Commercial Development


The impact of commonly used building materials, both at initial procurement (orange) and over a building’s estimated life span of 60 years (yellow). Structural materials have the biggest initial impact; over time, interior design elements and materials increase in total impact as replacements add up.

A group of people sitting in a living room.
Resonate Modular Seating
Designed in collaboration with Gensler and GREENGUARD Gold certified, Resonate from Haworth is a reconfigurable modular lounge collection that helps people connect and collaborate. Each of the line’s seating and table units is based on a “perfect square” platform, enabling users to adapt spaces to changing needs.


Some products and materials are much further along than others in terms of offering a range of options with different global warming potential. Today, an informed designer can easily specify carpet and gypsum board that far exceeds industry baselines. In fact, there are plenty of low embodied and even carbon neutral carpet options in the market for designers to choose from.

One example is the Smart City carpet plank system by Mohawk Group, a product that Gensler helped develop as a product design consultant. It earned Living Product Petal Certification from the International Living Future Institute for its regenerative qualities.

Because of successes like this, we are taking a close look at our design process to make it easier for designers to identify and implement low-impact materials. We are also currently editing our master specifications to set requirements on embodied carbon.

Two chairs in a room.
Smart City Carpet
Developed in collaboration with Mohawk Group, this carbon-neutral carpet plank system draws its inspiration from the human mobility and connection enabled by the world’s transit systems. Influenced by the principles of the Living Product Challenge, Smart City is free of toxins, socially responsible, and net positive to both people and the environment.
A person standing in a living room.
Gensler Minneapolis
The new studio at Gensler Minneapolis utilizes low VOC materials, low flow fixtures, and locally built and sourced furniture to deliver an office space filled with fresh-air daylight. A WELL dashboard displays real-time data and environmental statistics about the space, while operable windows provide natural light and ventilation.
A model of a space ship.
Irvine Company’s Flexible Workplace Solutions

Gensler delivered a flexible design concept that allows tenants to choose between various modular options and design aesthetics — all delivered via a standard set of furniture and fixtures that can be easily reused across multiple projects.

Irvine Company’s Flexible Office Solutions enables tenants to customize their spaces and amenities according to how their employees engage, collaborate, and unwind. The various design plans emphasize various aspects of resilience and employee wellness — from proximity to natural light to access to private spaces.

A room with a bar and chairs.
First United Bank, Fredericksburg Texas
This building is the first full mass-timber construction project to be completed in Texas, and the first in the U.S. to use Southern Yellow Pine CLT panels.


Mass timber is a building material made of timber pieces that are laminated together, forming thick structural elements such as cross laminated timber (CLT) panels that can be up are typically 12 feet wide by roughly 40 feet long.

Like concrete, the material is fire resistant, but it has a much lower global warming potential. Mass timber elements can also be installed quickly on-site with reduced construction time, traffic, and noise, along with minimal waste. The material’s structural advantages, combined with its positive impact on carbon emissions, are drawing increasing interest.

Secondly, carbon is sequestered from the atmosphere over the lifespan of trees in a sustainably harvested forest and then “stored” in mass timber buildings. This engineering marvel is quickly becoming an important part of Gensler’s global portfolio.

The reduction in global warming potential achieved in a mass timber building as compared to concrete.
—The Journal of Building Engineering
David Briefel
David is a Studio Director for the Climate Action & Sustainability practice area in Gensler’s New York office. His completed work includes the Etsy Headquarters and Ford Foundation and many strategic efforts for clients pursuing portfolio-wide climate action commitments. David has spearheaded the development and roll-out of the Gensler Product Sustainability (GPS) Standards. He is based in New York. Contact him at .
Scott Star
Scott is a global leader of Gensler’s Product Development practice and Director of Product Development for its Northeast region. Located in New York, he and his cross-functional project teams partner with manufacturers on the design, development, and introduction of new products for the built environment — from furniture and lighting to flooring and wall systems. Contact him at .
Graphical user interface, website.